The Problem – Legacy infrastructure, an ever-increasing demand
The current eco-system is based on single unsecured files stored in one location, without recovery protocols and limited security. Customers do not know where their files are stored, including which country their data could potentially be stored in.
Large vendors are building their own data centres, which are expensive, prone to being hacked, and, ultimately, insecure.
The Solution – Distributed cloud storage
Distributed cloud storage system with high-speed connectivity and the ability to scale immediately in a cost-effective way. Files are secured using high levels of encryption and implementing Blockchain.
How it works
We have developed a little cube for big data. Cubes are stored on-site in a customer’s location of choice. Data is stored in the client’s cube and, at the same time, a cryptographic hash of the file is stored across any number of other locations.
Each cube (node) has its own IP address. It can be geo-locked meaning data from a specific country will only ever be stored in that country.
Technology Features, Specifications and Advantages
The cube is a plug-and-use device storage device, it has two connections, one for power and the other a LAN port for the internet. It is currently in 3 sizes starting at 8 terabytes (TB) and the box is no bigger than a Sony PlayStation or Microsoft Xbox console.
Medium sized cubes up to 500TB are the size of a 3-drawer filing cabinet. The larger cubes can store 1 petabyte (PB) and the cabinet is a similar size to an upright fridge freezer or cash machine.
All can be stored in small-ventilated rooms on or off-site. Once registered, the cube connects itself to the network and identifies itself as online and available.
The cube enables the data to be stored in a safe and secure manner using sharding and encryption, but what is truly revolutionary is how the cube can scale at a rapid rate due to the fact that a traditional data centre infrastructure is not required.
The cube ecosystem facilitates decentralized storage. Users may have files in multiple locations and multiple copies, unlike Dropbox, AWS, Microsoft OneDrive, Google Drive and Apple iCloud etc. whose cloud-based data storage systems use large data centres to store all the data. These are expensive to build and especially to maintain, due to the cost of the air conditioning systems required to reduce the heat from the data servers. The data is also typically stored in a single document format which means data is at risk if the systems are hacked.
A cloud storage network implementing end-to-end AES 256 bit encryption would allow users to store, transfer and share data securely. The advantage of cubes is that users can increase storage capacity instantly, thus being able to scale in days rather than in months.
All data is saved to the cube UI then it is shredded and encrypted twice via AES-256 and distributed. Data is only verified via the blockchain and not saved to a blockchain.
Block Withholding Attacks
Say the AES-256 random number generator is subject to manipulation via block withholding attacks, in which the attacker withholds blocks until they find one that will produce a favorable random number. However, the attacker has only one chance to manipulate the random number for a particular challenge. Furthermore, failed attempts are locked out for 30 minutes then a second attack is locked out for 3 hours and a third attack means a reset must be done by a super admin user. This time delay prevents bots being deployed to attack at random. The system is unable to reset passwords, and this is part of a decentralized system.
Systems for higher security can be locked down to specific IP/MAC addresses which then means an attack can only be performed using a specific registered machine similar to SIM cards in mobile phones. Furthermore the system could be enhanced to have a white list and black list of IP or MAC addresses. To protect against such attacks, users can specify a high challenge frequency and large penalties for missing proofs.
Benefits of the cube infrastructure:
- More Secure - data is saved, shredded, encrypted twice via AES-256 and distributed.
- Data can be Geo-tagged to specific locations or IP/MAC addresses
- More cost-effective than large single site data centres - small cubes distributed mean less requirement for physical space in places where it is a scarce and expensive resource e.g. London, New York, Singapore.
- Scaling can be done in days rather than months
- Privacy - only hosts can access their files
- More eco-friendly - as less power is required, a company's carbon footprint is reduced.