Lightweight Eco-Friendly Geopolymer

Abstract/Technology Overview

Construction activities usually consumes a large amount of material and energy, and generates lots of heat, pollution and waste. Sustainable initiatives in construction may include reducing energy use and carbon emissions, optimized use of high carbon materials, and recycling of natural resources. Most of the materials used in construction are either steel or concrete. A vital constituent of concrete is Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), which is a serious atmospheric pollutant due to emission of 5-7% of global CO2 emission. Geopolymer concrete is an alternative solution to mitigate up to 90% reduction of CO2 emission during cement production.

The present invention provides a method for developing a non-structural, light weight geopolymer concrete from agro-industrial wastes, which reduces CO2 emission during production of the cement and the disposal of these otherwise unused waste materials. Using these materials also reduces their disposal into landfills and the resultant pollution.

Technology Features, Specifications and Advantages

The geopolymer technology utilises materials found in agricultural and industrial wastes and consists of the following features:

  • It utilises a combination of pozzolans such as palm oil fuel ash, rice husk ash, fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, with the addition of metakaolin as the binder
  • In addition, a combination of palm oil clinker, manufactured sand and oil palm shell may be used as substitutes of conventional fine and coarse aggregates
  • The resultant geopolymer is light weight (oven dried density of < 2000 kg/m3) and achieves a 28 day compressive strength of 24-38 MPa

Potential Applications

The developed geopolymer technology can be used as a replacement of conventional light weight concrete and its associated applications

Malaysia is one of the largest palm oil generated country and produces about 1,516,000 ton/ year wastes from palm oil industry.

Customer Benefit

  • A light weight eco-friendly concrete which utilises agricultural and industrial waste materials that would otherwise go into landfills or disposed of.
  • Customisable formulation to achieve required compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and others.

Technology Owner




Technology Category
  • Green Building
  • Composites (Hybrid)
  • Waste Management & Recycling
Technology Status
  • Available for Licensing
Technology Readiness Level
  • TRL 5

geopolymer, concrete, agriculture, industrial, waste, fly, ash, palm, oil, clinker, light, weight, cement